General Landscape Uses:
Accent or specimen tree.
Native plant nurseries in central and northern Florida.
Medium to large tree with a open, irregular, broadly conical crown. Trunks erect, straight, to 2 feet or more in diameter, but usually much less in South Florida. Bark dark gray, furrowed, and broken into irregular plates. Needles in bundles of 3s, 8-10 inches long.
Typically 30-50 feet in height in South Florida; to 105 feet in Florida. Taller than broad.
Southeastern United States west to Texas and south to Indian River, Glades and Lee counties. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes north to Indian River and Manatee counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Moist, well-drained sandy soils, without humus.
Low; it grows in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Greenish turning brown.
Cone. Pollination is by wind.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides moderate amounts of food and cover for wildlife.
Can be grown from seed.
Nelson 2003, Schaefer & Tanner 1997
Seedlings resemble coarse clumps of grass. It may take 3-10 years to develop a trunk, after which growth is fairly rapid.