General Landscape Uses:
Specimen or accent groundcover in moist to wet sites.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A fairly common element of freshwater marshes and prairies.
Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida.
Medium herbaceous fern.
Typically 3-4 feet in height. Usually as broad as tall.
Widespread in eastern and central North America west to Texas and south to Broward and Collier counties; West Indies, Mexico, Central America, South America and the Old World. Very rare in Broward County.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes from South Florida north to southern Brevard, Osceola, Polk, and Pasco counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations from the Monroe County Keys north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Swamps and marshes.
Wet, poorly-drained organic soils.
High; requires rich organic soils for optimal growth.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Full sun to light shade or moderate shade.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from spores.
It is listed as commercially exploited by the state of Florida.