General Landscape Uses:
Accent or specimen tree in restidential or commercial landscapes.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A common sub-canopy or canopy tree in rockland hammocks on the Miami Rock Ridge.
Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida. Available in Lake Worth at Amelia's SmartyPlants
Medium tree, rarely a large tree, with and erect trunk and an open, irregular crown. Bark thin, smooth, nearly white on younger trees. Leaves dull green, leathery, 1/2 - 1 1/2 inches long.
Typically 20-30 feet in height; to 55 feet in South Florida. Taller than broad.
Miami-Dade County; Bahamas, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. In South Florida, known only from Long Pine Key in Everglades National Park northeast along the Miami-Rock Ridge to the Miami River. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes north to Indian River and Manatee counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Moist, well-drained limestone soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Inconspicuous. Dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants.
Red drupe, turning purplish to black.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife.
Can be grown from de-pulped seed after the fruit is fully ripe. Clean and plant right away; the seeds do not store well. Plant in a container with at least 2" of soil. Sprinkle soil to just cover the seeds. Place in partial shade.
The leaves turn conspicuously black when they die. It is listed as threatened by the state of Florida.