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Krug’s holly, Tawnyberry holly
Ilex krugiana

Copyright by: Roger L. Hammer

General Landscape Uses: Accent or specimen tree in restidential or commercial landscapes.

Ecological Restoration Notes: A common sub-canopy or canopy tree in rockland hammocks on the Miami Rock Ridge.

Availability: Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida. Available in Lake Worth at Amelia's SmartyPlants (561-540-6296).

Description: Medium tree, rarely a large tree, with and erect trunk and an open, irregular crown. Bark thin, smooth, nearly white on younger trees. Leaves dull green, leathery, 1/2 - 1 1/2 inches long.

Dimensions: Typically 20-30 feet in height; to 55 feet in South Florida. Taller than broad.

Growth Rate: Moderate.

Range: Miami-Dade County; Bahamas, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. In South Florida, known only from Long Pine Key in Everglades National Park northeast along the Miami-Rock Ridge to the Miami River. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website.

Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.

Habitats: Rockland hammocks.

Soils: Moist, well-drained limestone soils, with humusy top layer.

Nutritional Requirements: Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.

Salt Water Tolerance: Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.

Salt Wind Tolerance: Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.

Drought Tolerance: High; does not require any supplemental water once established.

Light Requirements: Full sun to light shade.

Flower Color: White.

Flower Characteristics: Inconspicuous. Dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants.

Flowering Season: Spring.

Fruit: Red drupe, turning purplish to black.

Wildlife and Ecology: Provides significant food and cover for wildlife.

Horticultural Notes: Can be grown from de-pulped seed after the fruit is fully ripe. Clean and plant right away; the seeds do not store well. Plant in a container with at least 2" of soil. Sprinkle soil to just cover the seeds. Place in partial shade.

Comments: The leaves turn conspicuously black when they die. It is listed as threatened by the state of Florida.

Copyright by: Roger L. Hammer

Copyright by: George D. Gann

Copyright by: Shirley Denton

Copyright by: George D. Gann

Copyright by: Keith A. Bradley

Other data on Ilex krugiana available from:

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