General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also an accent shrub.
Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida.
Medium shrub with stiff, dark green leaves.
About 4-8 feet in height. Colonial, forming large masses from underground stems (rhizomes).
Eastern and southeastern United States west to Texas and south to Miami-Dade County and the Monroe County mainland.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes from South Florida north to southern Brevard, Osceola, Polk, and Pasco counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations from the Monroe County Keys north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Wet to moist, moderately well-drained sandy soils, with or without humus, acid pH.
Low to moderate; it can grow in nutrient poor soils or soils with some organic content.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Inconspicuous. Dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants.
Winter-spring; peak in spring.
Round black drupe. Often persistent throughout the winter.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife. Attracts bees and fly pollinators.
Can be grown from de-pulped seed after the fruit is fully ripe. Clean and plant right away; the seeds do not store well. Plant in a container with at least 2" of soil. Sprinkle soil to just cover the seeds. Place in full sun.
Nelson 2003, Schaefer & Tanner 1997
See also the Florida Wildflower Foundation's Flower Friday