General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Annual herbaceous wildflower.
About 6-12 inches tall. Taller than broad.
Widespread in eastern and central North America west to Texas and south to Broward and Collier counties. Very rare or extirpated in Broward County; reported only from Hugh Taylor Birch State Park, where last observed in 1983.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Pinelands and disturbed sites.
Moist to seasonally wet, well-drained sandy soils, without humus.
Low; it grows in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought. It invades moist soil as the seasonal water table drops.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides some food and cover for wildlife.
Can be grown from seed. Harvest seed when mature, but before it becomes dried out.