General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. It can also be used as an accent shrub in moist to wet sunny areas. It is also useful in buffer plantings.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
An occasional element of tidal marshes; rarer in freshwater marshes.
Grown by enthusiasts and occasionally by native plant nurseries. Available in Lake Worth at Amelia's SmartyPlants
Medium erect shrub with a narrow crown. Leaves linear, 1-2 inches long.
Typically 4-9 feet in height. Taller than broad.
Fast to moderate.
Southeastern United States south to the Monroe County Keys; Bahamas. Somewhat sporadic in South Florida. Very rare in the Monroe County Keys on Key Largo and then apparently disjunct to Big Pine Key and nearby islands.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes from South Florida north to southern Brevard, Osceola, Polk, and Pasco counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations from the Monroe County Keys north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Coastal wetlands, occasionally inland.
Wet to moist, periodically inundated freshwater or brackish sandy, limestone, or organic soils, with or without humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Moderate; tolerates brackish water or occasional inundation by salt water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Moderate to low; requires moist to wet soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Semi-showy heads. Fragrant. Dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants.
Inconspicuous achene, but fruiting masses can be semi-showy.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides some food and significant cover for wildlife. May be a nectar plant for monarch (Danaus plexippus) and other butterflies. Nectar from the male flowers attacts pollinators and the seeds are dispersed by wind.
Can be grown from seed. Cover with just enough soil to keep the seeds from blowing away. Also can be propogated from soft or hard wood cuttings.
The long narrow leaves are very attractive. The pollen is an allergen.