General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also butterfly gardens.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A relatively common groundcover in mesic flatwoods, scrubby flatwoods and scrub.
Grown by enthusiasts and occasionally by native plant nurseries.
Small to medium woody groundcover. Leaves pale green above, 1 1/2-3 1/2 inches long. Short deciduous, the new leaves emerging in mid to late winter (February-March).
Typically 1-3 feet in height, occasionally taller. Usually taller than broad.
Georgia south to northeastern Miami-Dade and Collier counties.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Map of suggested ZIP codes north to Indian River and Manatee counties.
Map of ZIP codes with habitat recommendations north to Martin and Charlotte counties.
Pinelands and scrub.
Moist to dry, well-drained sandy soils, without humus.
Low; it grows in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Outside creamy white with a reddish-purple base; inside creamy white with a broad band of dark purple across the widest part.
Showy, 2-3" wide; very fragrant with a strong spicy odor.
Winter-spring, appearing with new leaves.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and moderate amounts of cover for wildlife. Larval host plant for zebra swallowtail (Eurytides marcellus) butterflies.
Schaefer & Tanner 1997
See also the Florida Wildflower Foundation's Flower Friday