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Floristic Inventory of the Florida Keys Database Online

Krugiodendron ferreum (Vahl) Urb.
Black ironwood

Krugiodendron ferreum
Copyright by: Roger L. Hammer

Family: Rhamnaceae

Group: Dicot

Substrate: Terrestrial

Habit: Tree

Perennation: Perennial

Native Range: Eastern peninsular Florida, the West Indies, Mexico and Central America.

IRC SOUTH FLORIDA Status: Secure

Map of South Florida Locations

SOUTH FLORIDA Occurrence: Present

SOUTH FLORIDA Native Status: Native

SOUTH FLORIDA Cultivated Status: Cultivated

Comments: Visit our Natives For Your Neighborhood website for more information and images. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website.

Synonyms: Condalia ferrea, Scutia ferrea.

FLORIDA KEYS Occurrence: Present

FLORIDA KEYS Native Status: Native

IRC FLORIDA KEYS Status: Secure

Map of Florida Keys Locations

Florida Keys History and Distribution: First collected between 1838 and 1853 by John Loomis Blodgett on the island of Key West.  Reported in 1913 by John Kunkel Small for hammocks from the upper Keys to the lower Keys.  First reported for the lower sandy Keys by Kruer (1992), and subsequently collected there by George D. Gann and Keith A. Bradley in 1996 (466, FTG).  We consider this native and extant throughout the Florida Keys.

Other data on Krugiodendron ferreum available from :


Krugiodendron ferreum has been reported from the following 23 conservation areas in the FLORIDA KEYS :
Occurrence Native Status
Attwood Addition, Indian Key Historic State Park Present Native
Big Torch Hammocks, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
Biscayne National Park, Florida Keys Section Present Native
Blue Heron Hammock, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
Crocodile Lake National Wildlife Refuge Present Native
Curry Hammock State Park Present Native
Dagny Johnson Key Largo Hammocks Botanical State Park Present Native
Dove Creek Hammocks, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
John Pennekamp Coral Reef State Park Present Native
Key West National Wildlife Refuge Present Native
Lake San Pedro Hammocks, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
Lignumvitae Key Botanical State Park Present Native
Lignumvitae Key Botanical State Park, Klopp Tract Present Native
Little Hamaca Park Present Native
Little Torch Hammocks, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
Long Key State Park Present Native
Middle Torch Hammocks Parcel 3063, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
National Key Deer Refuge Present Native
Snake Creek Hammocks, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
Spoonbill Sound Hammocks, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
Sugarloaf Hammocks, Florida Keys Wildlife and Environmental Area Present Native
Torchwood Hammock Preserve Present Native
Windley Key Fossil Reef Geological State Park Present Native




Krugiodendron ferreum has been reported for the following 2 habitats in THE FLORIDA KEYS :
Coastal Berm
Rockland Hammock


All Images:

Krugiodendron ferreum
Copyright by: Roger L. Hammer

Krugiodendron ferreum
Copyright by: George D. Gann

Krugiodendron ferreum
Copyright by: George D. Gann
in habitat, Dominican Republic, 2011

Krugiodendron ferreum
Copyright by: Susan Trammell

Krugiodendron ferreum
Copyright by: Shirley Denton