General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also an accent groundcover in shady, wet areas.
Grown by a few native plant nurseries in central and northern Florida.
Medium to large herbaceous fern.
Typically 2-4 feet in height. Spreading from underground stems (rhizomes) and forming patches.
Eastern and central United States west to Texas and south to Miami-Dade and Collier counties.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Swamps, marshes and wet hammocks.
Seasonally wet to moist, moderately well-drained to poorly-drained organic soils.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from division, and from spores with difficulty.