Small to medium tree with a broadly spreading crown. Trunks to 6 inches in diameter, but usually much less in South Florida. Bark nearly black, furrowed. Leaves temperate semi-deciduous, dark green above, pale beneath, about 1/2-1 1/2 inches long.
Typically 10-20 feet in height in South Florida; to 30 feet in Florida. Often as broad as tall.
Southeastern United States south to Broward County and the Monroe County mainland. Very rare in southeastern Florida. In Broward County known only from Fern Forest Nature Center. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website. A number of new discoveries in South Florida have occured since the production of Little's map.
Floodplain forests and hammocks
Seasonally wet to moist, moderately well-drained sandy soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Drupe, red turning black.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife. Birds and other animals eat the fruits.
George D. Gann, 2017 In cultivation by Green Isle Gardens, Florida
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.