Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations.
Grown by enthusiasts and occasionally by native plant nurseries.
Small erect tree with a norrowly umbrella-shaped crown. Trunks erect, small, to 3 inches in diameter. Bark smooth when young, becoming rough with age. Leaves dark green and rough above, much lighter below.
Typically 10-20 feet in height; to 39 feet in South Florida. Taller than broad.
Monroe County Keys north to Martin, Hendry and Pinellas counties; West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South America. Very rare north of Broward and Collier counties. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website.
Hammock edges and gaps.
Moist, well-drained limestone or sandy soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Greenish-yellow to whitish.
Orange drupe borne on stems.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and some cover for wildlife. Larval host plant for io (Automeris io) moths; occasional larval host for martial scrub-hairstreak (Strymon martialis) butterflies.
Can be grown from de-pulped seed. Scatter seed over surface of soil and barely cover. Place container in light shade or full sun. Germination is in 3-4 weeks. Transplant into liners when mature leaves finish ermerging.
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.