Typically 1-3 feet in height. About as broad as tall.
Southeastern United States west to Texas and south to the Monroe County Keys; West Indies, Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Rare in the Monroe County Keys and either very rare or absent in the middle Keys.
A wide variety of forested ecosystems.
Wet to moist, well-drained sandy, limestone, or organic soils, with humusy top layer; rarely on peat on tree islands in the Everglades.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Light shade to full sun.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from spores. Small plants are easily transplanted.
Keith A. Bradley
George D. Gann
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.