Typically 8-12 feet in height in South Florida; to 20 feet in Florida. Often as broad as tall or broader.
Widespread in North America south to Miami-Dade and Collier counties; Mexico and Central America; apparently escaped from cultivation in the West Indies. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website.
Wet thickets, swamp margins and moist forests.
Moist to wet, moderately well-drained to poorly-drained sandy or organic soils, with humusy top layer.
Low; it grows in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Full sun to light shade.
All year; peak spring-fall.
Purplish black and juicy.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife. Birds eat the fruits.
Can be grown from seed and root cuttings.
Wines and jellies can be made from the fruit. The flowers heads can be dipped in batter and fried.
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.