Typically 2-3 feet in height. Usually taller than broad.
Eastern and southeastern United States west to Texas and Oklahoma and south to the Monroe County Keys; West Indies, Mexico, Central America and northern South America. Very rare or extirpated in the Monroe County Keys where collected once on Big Pine Key in 1951.
Swamps and marshes.
Wet, poorly-drained organic soils.
High; requires rich organic soils for optimal growth.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
White and yellow.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides food for birds.
Can be grown from seed and division.
Keith A. Bradley
James Johnson, 2014 In habitat, Everglades National Park, Florida
Kristen Finch, 2013 In cultivation, Palm Beach County, Florida
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.