Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations.
Grown by enthusiasts and occasionally by native plant nurseries.
Large herbaceous fern.
Typically 3-4 feet in height. Spreading from underground stems (rhizomes) and forming large open to dense patches.
Eastern and central United States west to Texas and south to Miami-Dade County and the Monroe County mainland.
Pinelands and moist forests.
Moist, well-drained sandy soils, usually without humusy top layer.
Low; it grows in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from spores and division.
George D. Gann
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.