General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also wet wildflower and butterfly gardens.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Small to medium herbaceous wildflower.
1-4 feet in height. Taller than broad.
Moderate to fast.
Southern United States south to the Monroe County Keys; West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South America. Rare in the Monroe County Keys and perhaps absent in the middle Keys.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Marshes and swamps.
Wet to moist, moderately well-drained to periodically inundated sandy, limestone, or organic soils, with or without humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Moderate; tolerates brackish water or occasional inundation by salt water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Semi-showy flowering heads.
All year; peak summer-fall.
Inconspicuous brownish achene. All year.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Nectar plant for Florida duskywing
(Ephyriades brunneus), hammock skipper (Polygonus leo), long-tailed skipper (Urbanus proteus), mangrove skipper (Phocides pigmalion), monk skipper (Asbolis capucinus) and other butterflies.
Can be grown from seed.
This is an excellent butterfly attractant. The leaves and flowers are fragrant.