Large shrub or small tree with an erect trunk and an irregular narrow crown. Trunks generally 2-3 inches in diameter. Bark smooth, pale gray. Leaves smooth, bright green, about 2-4 inches long.
Typically 10-15 feet in height; to 30 feet in South Florida. Taller than broad.
Monroe County Keys north to Volusia, Lake and Dixie counties; West Indies and Central America. Very rare in the upper and middle Monore County Keys.
Moist forests, forest edges and pinelands.
Moist to seasonally wet, well-drained to poorly-drained sandy or limestone soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate; can grow in nutrient poor soils, but needs some organic content to thrive.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
High; can tolerate moderate amounts of salt wind without injury.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Inconspicuous. Essentially dioecious, with male and female flowers on different plants; sometimes a few perfect flowers are present. The flowers are borne directly on the twigs from the previous year's growth.
All year; peak fall-winter.
Blue to black berry, borne on the stems.
Can be grown from seed after coating is removed. Scatter seeds over surface of soil and barely cover. Place container in light shade or full sun.
Miccosukee Indians used the dried leaves to mix with tobacco. Horticultural synonyms: M. floridana, Rapanea punctata.
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2014. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.