Recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Not recommended for general landscaping.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A common element of rockland hammocks and pine rocklands; rarer in hammock on barrier islands.
Grown by one or two native plant nurseries in South Florida.
Small to medium tree or large shrub with a broad crown composed of spreading , often drooping branches. Trunks often short but sometimes erect and tall, 3-24 inches in diameter. Bark reddish-brown, flaking into large plates. Leaves compound, 9-10 inches long; leaflets dark green, glossy above, blotched with black. Semi-deciduous, most or all leaves are dropped during leaf exchange in the late winter or early spring.
Typically 10-40 feet in height; to 63 feet in South Florida. Usually taller than broad.
Monroe County Keys north mostly along the east coast to Martin County; Greater Antilles. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website.
Hammocks and hammock edges. Also an understory shrub in pine rocklands.
Moist, well-drained limestone or sandy soils, with or without humusy top layer.
Moderate to low; it prefers soils with organic content, but will still grow reasonably well in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
High; does not require any supplemental water once established.
Full sun to light shade.
Inconspicuous. Dioecious, with male and female flowers on separate plants.
All year; peak in spring.
Orange 3/4" long drupe. Fall.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides food and cover for wildlife. Nectar plant for Bahamian swallowtail (Heraclides andraemon), Florida white (Appias drusilla), giant swallowtail (Papilio cresphontes), julia (Dryas iulia), large orange sulphur (Phoebis agarithe), mangrove skipper (Phocides pigmalion), southern broken-dash (Wallengrenia otho) and other butterflies. White-crowned pigeons eat the fruit during nesting season.
Can be grown from seed.
For serious enthusiasts only. The entire plant is caustic and can cause a rash similar to that caused by poison-ivy. Smoke from burning wood is irritating to the eyes and throat.
Keith A. Bradley
Keith A. Bradley
James Johnson, 2014 In habitat, Everglades National Park, Florida
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.