Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Annual herbaceous wildflower.
About 6-12 inches tall. Taller than broad.
Widespread in eastern and central North America west to Texas and south to Broward and Collier counties. Very rare or extirpated in Broward County; reported only from Hugh Taylor Birch State Park, where last observed in 1983.
Pinelands and disturbed sites.
Moist to seasonally wet, well-drained sandy soils, without humus.
Low; it grows in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought. It invades moist soil as the seasonal water table drops.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides some food and cover for wildlife.
Can be grown from seed. Harvest seed when mature, but before it becomes dried out.
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.