Small tree or medium shrub with erect branches and an open, irregular crown. Leaves leathery, very rough above, about 2-4 inches long or sometimes longer.
Typically 5-15 feet in height or sometimes taller, especially in the Florida Keys. Taller than broad.
Monore County Keys north along the east coast to Martin County; West Indies. Very rare or perhaps absent in the middle Monroe County Keys. Also very rare and sporadic north of the Miami River; perhaps never present or extirpated in Broward County; possibly extirpated in Palm Beach County; known from one location in Martin County. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website. Little mapped this north only to Broward County.
Pine rocklands and hammocks.
Moist, well-drained limestone (occasionally sandy) soils, with or without humusy top layer.
Moderate to low; it prefers soils with organic content, but will still grow reasonably well in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Moderate to high; plants growing in extremely dry soils may die during extended periods of drought.
All year; peak winter-spring.
Rounded red berry.
Difficult to grow from seed.
Of sporadic occurrence north of the Miami River.
Keith A. Bradley
George D. Gann In habitat, Everglades National Park, Florida
Don & Joyce Gann
Keith A. Bradley
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.