Small tree or large columnar shrub usually with a dense rounded crown from several slim, erect trunks and small erect branches. Bark light reddish-brown, thin, smooth when young, then divided into small, thick scales forming concentric rings around the trunk of older trees. Leaves abundant and persistant, leathery, 3/4 to 1 1/2 inches long.
Typically 8-15 feet in height. Taller than broad.
Moderate to slow.
Monroe County Keys north mostly along the coast to Brevard and Manatee counties; West Indies, Mexico and Central America. For a digitized image of Elbert Little's Florida range map, visit the Exploring Florida website. Little's map exagerates the range of this species in the interior.
Hammocks and hammock edges; coastal thickets.
Moist, well-drained sandy or limestone soils, with humusy top layer.
Moderate to high; grows best with some organic content and may languish in nutrient poor soils.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Moderately low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water, but tolerates short term inunation by salt water from storm surge with minimal damage.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
High; can tolerate moderate amounts of salt wind without injury.
Moderate; generally requires moist soils, but tolerant of short periods of drought once established.
Full sun to light shade.
All year; peak in summer.
Black or brown berry.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Provides significant food and cover for wildlife. Birds eat the fruits.
Can be grown from de-pulped seed. Place in light shade. Germination usually occurs within 1 month.
George D. Gann in habitat, Everglades National Park, Key Largo, Florida, 2013
George D. Gann in habitat, Everglades National Park, Key Largo, 2013
Gann, G.D., M.E. Abdo, J.W. Gann, G.D. Gann, Sr., S.W.
Woodmansee, K.A. Bradley, E. Grahl and K.N. Hines. 2005-2016. Natives For Your Neighborhood. http://www.regionalconservation.org.
The Institute for Regional Conservation. Delray Beach, Florida USA.