General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A somewhat rare understory element of strand swamps and other wetlands.
Grown by enthusiasts.
Large herbaceous wildflower.
Typically 3-6 feet in height. About as broad as tall.
Widespread in North America south to Broward and Collier counties. Very rare in Broward County; known only from Water Conservation Area 3A and Tree Tops Park.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Swamps and marshes.
Wet, poorly-drained organic soils.
High; requires rich organic soils for optimal growth.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Low; salt wind may burn the leaves.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Pair of inconspicuous carpels pendent from a supporting axis.
Wildlife and Ecology:
Larval host plant for black swallowtail
(Papilio polyxenes) butterflies.
DANGER! This plant is extremely poisonous to humans and pets if ingested.