General Landscape Uses:
Primarily recommended for natural landscapes and habitat restorations. Also useful as an accent groundcover along pond and lake edges and other moist to wet sites.
Ecological Restoration Notes:
A relatively common understory herb in freshwater swamps throughout South Florida; occasional in freshwater marshes, prairies and wet hammocks.
Native plant nurseries.
Medium to large herbaceous fern with erect fronds.
Typically 2-4 feet in height. Spreading from underground stems (rhizomes) and forming large, sometimes very dense, patches.
Florida from the Panhandle south to Miami-Dade County and the Monroe County mainland; West Indies, Mexico, Central America and South America.
Map of select IRC data from peninsular Florida.
Swamps, marshes, wet prairies and wet hammocks.
Wet to moist, poorly-drained to moderately well-drained organic soils.
High; requires rich organic soils for optimal growth.
Salt Water Tolerance:
Low; does not tolerate long-term flooding by salt or brackish water.
Salt Wind Tolerance:
Moderate; grows near salt water, but is protected from direct salt spray by other vegetation.
Low; requires moist to wet soils and is intolerant of long periods of drought.
Light shade to moderate shade or full sun.
There are no flowers; the plants reproduce by spores.
Can be grown from division and spores.
An excellent understory fern in a wide variety of wet situations, but can spread aggressively in the right conditions.